Lenin Collected Works/Volume 3

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The Development of Capitalism in Russia 21
Chapter I. The Theoretical Mistakes of the Narodnik Economists
  1. The Social Division of Labour
    The increase in the number of industries. —The creation of a home market as a result of the social division of labour. —The manifestation of this process in agriculture. —The views of the Narodnik economists
  2. The Growth of the Industrial Population at the Expense of the Agricultural
    The necessary connection between this phenomenon and the very nature of commodity and capitalist economy.
  3. The Ruin of the Small Producers
    The mistaken view of the Narodniks. — The view of the author of Capital on this subject.
  4. The Narodnik Theory of the Impossibility of Realising Surplus-Value
    The substance of the theory of Messrs. V. V. and N. —on: its erroneous character. —The “foreign market” is wrongly dragged into the problem of realisation. —The superficial estimation of the contradictions of capitalism by the writers mentioned.
  5. The Views of Adam Smith on the Production and Circulation of the Aggregate Social Product in Capitalist Society and Marx’s Criticism of These Views
    Adam Smith’s omission of constant capital. —The influence of this error on the theory of the national revenue
  6. Marx’s Theory of Realisation
    The basis premises of Marx’s theory. —The realisation of the product under simple reproduction. —The main conclusion from Marx’s theory of realisation. —The significance of productive consumption. —The contradiction between the urge towards the unlimited growth of production and the limited character of consumption.
  7. The Theory of the National Income
    Proudhon. —Rodbertus. —Contemporary economists. —Marx.
  8. Why Does the Capitalist Nation Need a Foreign Market?
    The causes of the need for a foreign market. —The foreign market and the progressive character of capitalism.
  9. Conclusions from Chapter I
    Résumé of the propositions examined above. —The essence of the problem of the home market.
Chapter II. The Differentiation of the Peasantry
  1. Zemstvo Statistics for Novorossia
    Economic groups of the peasantry. —Commercial agriculture and the purchase and sale of labour-power. —The top group; the concentration of land, and of animals and implements the higher productivity of labour. —Mr. V. V.’s argument of the decline in horse-ownership. —The hiring of farm workers and Mr. V. V.’s argument on this phenomenon. —The bottom group of the peasantry; the leasing of land. —The middle group, its instability. —Messrs V. V. and Karyshev on peasant rentings. —The attitude of the Narodniks to Mr. Postnikov’s researches.
  2. Zemstvo Statistics for Samara Gubernia
    Data concerning the farms of the different peasant groups in Novouzensk Uyezd. —The land held and the land in use by the different groups. —Mr. Karyshev on land renting and grain prices. —Wage-labour; the creation of a home market by the differentiation of the peasantry. —The rural proletariat in Samara Gubernia.
  3. Zemstvo Statistics for Saratov Gubernia
    Data concerning the farms of the different groups. —The hiring of farm workers. —“Industries” in Zemstvo statistics. —Rentings. —The arguments on land renting advanced by Messrs. Karyshev, N.-on, and Maress. —A comparison of Kamyshin and other uyezds. —The significance of the classification of peasant households.
  4. Zemstvo Statistics for Perm Gubernia
    Data concerning the farms of the different groups. —The hiring of farm workers and day labourers and its significance. —The manuring of the soil. —Improved implements. —Commercial and industrial establishments.
  5. Zemstvo Statistics for Orel Gubernia
    Data concerning the farms of the different groups. —Incompleteness of the picture of differentiation from the data for Orel Gubernia.
  6. Zemstvo Statistics for Voronezh Gubernia
    Methods of classification in Voronezh abstracts. —Data for Zadonsk Uyezd. —Industries.
  7. Zemstvo Statistics for Nizhni-Novgorod Gubernia
    Data concerning groups of farms for three uyezds.
  8. Review of Zemstvo Statistics for Other Gubernias
    Novgorod Gubernia, Demyansk Uyezd. —Chernigov Gubernia, Kozelets Uyezd. —Yenisei Gubernia. —Poltava Gubernia, three uyezds. —Kaluga Gubernia. —Tver Gubernia.
  9. Summary of the Above Zemstvo Statistics on the Differentiation of the Peasantry
    Methods of marking the summary. —Combined table and chart. —Examination of the various columns of the chart. —Comparison between different localities as to degree of differentiation.
  10. Summary of Zemstvo Statistics and Army-Horse Census Returns
    Zemstvo Statistics for 112 uyezds of 21 gubernias. —Army-horse census returns for 49 gubernias of European Russia. —Significance of these data
  11. A Comparison of the Army-Horse Censuses of 1888-1891 and 1896-1900
    Data for 48 gubernias of European Russia. —Statistical exercises of Messrs. Vikhlyayev and Chernenkov.
  12. Zemstvo Statistics on Peasant Budgets
    Character of the data and methods of treating them. —(A). General results of the budgets. —Magnitude of expenditures and incomes. —Components of expenditures. —Components of incomes. —Cash portions of the budgets. —The significance of the taxes. —(B). A characterisation of peasant farming. —General data about the farms. —Property and implements. —Farm expenditure. —Income from agriculture. —An apparent exception. —(C). A characterisation of the standard of living. —Expenditure on food in kind. —Expenditure on food in cash. —Remaining expenditures on personal consumption. —Cash expenditure on personal and productive consumption. —Mr. N.-on on about the top “stratum” of the peasantry. —A comparison between the standard of living or rural workers and peasants. —Methods of Mr. Shcherbina.
  13. Conclusions from Chapter II.
    The significance of commodity economy. —1) Capitalist contradictions within the village community. —2) “Depeasantising”. —3) Characterisation of this process in Capital. —4) The peasant bourgeoisie. —5) The rural proletariat. The European type of allotment-holding rural worker. —6) The middle peasantry. —7) The formation of a home market for capitalism. —8) Increasing differentiation; significance of migration. —9) Merchant’s and usurer’s capital. The presentation of the problem in theory. The connection between these forms of capital and industrial capital. —10) Labour-service and its influence on the differentiation of the peasantry.
Chapter III. The Landowners’ Transition from Corvée to Capitalist Economy
  1. The Main Features of Corvée Economy
    The essence of the serf system of economy and the conditions for it.
  2. The Combination of the Corvée and the Capitalist Systems of Economy
    The remnants of the old system after the Reform. —The labour-service and the capitalist systems; their relative incidence. —The transition from the labour-service system to the capitalist.
  3. Description of the Labour-Service System
    Types of labour-service. Rentings in kind and their significance. —The payment of labour under labour-service. —Personal dependence under labour-service. —General estimation of labour-service.
  4. The Decline of the Labour-Service System
    Two types of labour-service.—The significance of the differentiation of the peasantry.—View of Mr. Stebut.—Views in various publications.
  5. The Narodnik Attitude to the Problem
    The idealisation of labour-service.—Mr. Kablukov’s argument.
  6. The Story of Engelhardt’s Farm
    The original condition of the farm and the nature of the gradual changes made in it.
  7. The Employment of Machinery in Agriculture
    Four periods in the development of agricultural machinery production.—Incompleteness of official statistics.—Data on the employment of various agricultural machines.
  8. The Significance of Machinery in Agriculture
    The capitalist character of the employment of machinery.—Results of the employment of machinery.—The inconsistency of the Narodniks.
  9. Wage-Labour in Agriculture
    "Agricultural outside employments", their significance, their scale.—Number of agricultural workers in all European Russia.
  10. The Significance of Hired Labour in Agriculture
    The conditions of agricultural workers.—Specific forms of hire.—The conditions of workers of small and big employers.—First elements of public control.—The appraisal of agricultural migration by the Narodniks.
Chapter IV. The Growth of Commercial Agriculture
  1. General Data on Agricultural Production in Post-Reform Russia and on the Types of Commercial Agriculture
    The production of cereals and potatoes in 1864-1865, 1870-1879, 1883-1887, 1885-1894.—Potato sowing and its significance.—Areas of commercial agriculture.—Mr. Kablukov’s arguments.
  2. The Commercial Grain-Farming Area
    The shifting of the principal centre of cereal production.—The significance of the outer regions as colonies.—The capitalist character of agriculture in this area.
  3. The Commercial Stock-Farming Area. General Data on the Development of Dairy Farming.
    The significance of stock farming in the different areas.—The calculations of Messrs. Kovalevsky and Levitsky.—The development of cheese-making.—The incompleteness of official data.—Technical progress.
  4. Continuation. The Economy of Landlord Farming in the Area Described
    The rationalisation of agriculture.—"Amalgamated dairies" and their significance.—The formation of a home market.—The migration of agricultural workers to the industrial gubernias.—The more even distribution of jobs through-out the year.—The small cultivators’ dependence and its estimation by Mr. V. V.
  5. Continuation. The Differentiation of the Peasantry in the Dairy-Farming Area
    The distribution of cows among the peasants.—Details of St. Petersburg Uyzed.—"Progressive trends in peasant farming".—The influence of this progress on the poor.
  6. The Flax-Growing Area
    The growth of commercial flax-growing.—Exchange between different types of commercial agriculture.—"Extremes" in the flax area.—Technical improvements.
  7. The Technical Processing of Agricultural Produce
    The significance of the factory or technical system of farming.
    1. ) Distilling . . . The extent of agricultural distilling.—The development and the significance of potato distilling.
    2. ) Beet-Sugar Production . . . The growth of sugar-beet production.—The progress of capitalist agriculture.
    3. ) Potato-Starch Production . . . Its growth.—Two processes in the development of this branch of production.—The starch "industry" in Moscow Gubernia—and in Vladimir Gubernia.
    4. ) Vegetable Oil Production . . . The dual processes of its development.—Oil pressing as a cottage industry.
    5. ) Tobacco Growing . . .
  8. Industrial Vegetable and Fruit Growing; Suburban Farming.
    The growth of commercial fruit growing and vegetable growing.—Peasant vegetable growers in the St. Petersburg, Moscow and Yareslavl gubernias.—The hot-house industry.—Industrial melon growing.—Suburban farming and its characteristics.
  9. Conclusions on the Significance of Capitalism in Agriculture in Russia
    1) On the transformation of agriculture into enterprise. 2) The specific features of capitalism in agriculture. 3) The formation of a home market for capitalism. 4) The progressive historical role of capitalism in Russian agriculture.
  10. Narodnik Theories on Capitalism in Agriculture. "The Freeing of Winter Time"
    The narrow and stereotyped character of this theory.—Its omission of highly important aspects of the process.
  11. Continuation.—The Village Community.—Marx’s View on Small-Scale Agriculture.—Engels’s Opinion of the Contemporary Agricultural Crisis
    The Narodnik’s wrong presentation of the problem of the village community.—Their misunderstanding of a passage in Capital.—Marx’s estimation of peasant agriculture.—His estimation of agricultural capitalism. —Mr. N.--on’s inappropriate quotation.
Chapter V. The First Stages of Capitalism in Industry
  1. Domestic Industry and Handicrafts
    The remants of domestic industry. —The extent of the prevalence of handicrafts, their basic features.
  2. Small Commodity-Producers in Industry. The Craft Spirit in the Small Industries
    The transition from handicrafts to commodity production. The fear of competition.
  3. The Growth of Small Industries after the Reform. Two Forms of This Process and Its Significance.
    Causes of the growth of small industries. —The settlement of industrialists in the outer regions. —The growth of small industries among the local population. —The shift of capital. —The connection between the growth of small industries and the differentiation of the peasantry.
  4. The Differentiation of the Small Commodity-Producers. Data on House-to-House Censuses of Handicraftsmen in Moscow Gubernia
    Presentation of the problem. —The method of processing the data. —Combined table and chart. —Conclusions: wage-labour, productivity of labour, incomes. —The petty-bourgeois structure of handicraft industries.
  5. Capitalist Simple Co-operation
    Its significance and influence on production. —Artels.
  6. Merchant’s Capital in the Small Industries
    The conditions that give rise to the buyer-up. —Trades-women in the lace industry. —Examples of marketing organisation. —Views of the Narodniks.Forms of merchant’s capital.
  7. "Industry and Agricultural"
    Data of the table. —The agriculture of wage-workers. —"Land labourers". —Other data concerning industry and agriculture. —Length of the working period. —Résumé.
  8. "The Combination of Industry with Agriculture"
    The Narodnik’s theory. —The forms in which industry is combined with agriculture and their diverse significance.
  9. Some Remarks on the Pre-Capitalist Economy of Our Countryside
Chapter VI. Capitalist Manufacture and Capitalist Domestic Industry
  • The Rise of Manufacture and Its Main Features
    The concept of manufacture, its dual origin and significance.
  • Capitalist Manufacture in Russian Industry
    1. ) The Weaving Industry
    2. ) Other Branches of the Textile Industry. The Felt Trade
    3. ) The Hat-and-Cap and Hemp-and-Rope Trades
    4. ) The Wood-Working Trades
    5. ) The Processing of Livestock Produce. The Leather and Fur Trades
    6. ) The Remaining Livestock Processing Trades
    7. ) The Processing of Mineral Products
    8. ) The Metal Trades. The Pavlovo Industries
    9. ) Other Metal Trades
    10. ) The Jewellery, Samovar and Accordian Trades
  • Technique in Manufacture. Division of Labour and Its Significance
    Hand production, apprenticeship. —Division of labour as a stage preparatory to large-scale machine industry, its influence on the workers.
  • The Territorial Division of Labour and the Separation of Agriculture from Industry
    Mr. Kharizomenov’s opinion. —Non-agricultural centres. —The transitional character of manufacture. —The raising of the cultural level of the population.
  • The Economic Structure of Manufacture
    The circumstances of production. —How Mr. Ovsyannikov and Kharizomenov describe it.
  • Merchant’s and Industrial Capital in Manufacture.The "Buyer-up" and the "Factory Owner"
    The connection between the big and the small establishments. —The error of the Narodniks.
  • Capitalist Domestic Industry as an Appendage of Manufacture
    Its incidence, its characteristic features, the conditions making for its spread, its significance in the theory of the surplus-population.
  • What Is "Handicraft" Industry?
    Some aggregate statistics on handicraftsmen. —The predominance of capitalistically employed workers. —The vagueness of the term "handicraft" and the abuse of it.
  • Chapter VII. The Development of Large-Scale Machine Industry
    1. The Scientific Conception of the Factory and the Significance of "Factory" Statistics
    1. Our Factory Statistics
      Their sources. —Publications of the 60s. —The specific character of the Military Statistical Abstract. —Mr. Orlov’s Directory. —The Collections of the Department of Commerce and Manufactures. —The Returns for Russia for 1884-85; Mr. Karyshev’s errors. —Data of gubernia statistical committees. —The List. —Is the number of factories in Russia growing?
    2. An Examination of Historical-Statistical Data on the Development of Large-Scale Industry
      1. ) Textile Trades
      2. ) Wood-Working Industries
      3. ) Chemical, Livestock Product and Ceramic Industries
      4. ) Metallurgical Industries
      5. ) Food Industries
      6. ) Excise-Paying and Other Trades
      7. ) Conclusions
    3. The Development of the Mining Industry
      The Urals, their specific features. —The South. —The Caucasus. —The big and small mines in the Donets Basin. —The significance of the data on the development of the mining industry.
    4. Is the Number of Workers in Large Capitalist Enterprises Growing?
      Data for the years 1865 and 1890. —Mistaken Method of the Narodniks.
    5. Steam-Engine Statistics. Data for the years 1875-1878 and 1892.
    6. The Growth of Large Factories
      Data for the years 1866, 1879, 1890 and 1894-95. —The largest enterprises in factory industry and in the mining industry. —The errors of Mr. N-on.
    7. The Distribution of Large-Scale Industry
      Data on the leading centres of factory industry in the years 1879 and 1890. —Three types of centres. —The classification of the centres. —The growth of rural factory centres and its significance.
    8. The Development of the Lumber and Building Industries
      The growth of the lumber industry; its organisation. —The growth of capitalism in the building industry.
    9. The Appendage to the Factory
    10. The Complete Separation of Industry from Agriculture
      The error of the Narodniks. —Moscow Zemstvo sanitary statistics.
    11. Three Stages in the Development of Capitalism in Russian Industry
      The connection between all the stages. —Specific technical features. —The growth of capitalist relationships. —The character of the development of industry. —The separation of industry from agriculture. —Differences in living conditions. —The growth of the home market.
    Chapter VIII. The Formation of the Home Market
    1. The Growth of Commodity Circulation
      The development of the railways, water transport, commerce and the banks.
    2. The Growth of the Commercial and Industrial Population
      1. ) The Growth of Towns
      2. ) The Significance of Home Colonisation
      3. ) The Growth of Factory and of Commercial and Industrial Townships and Villages
      4. ) Non-Agricultural Outside Employments Non-agricultural outside employments, their size and growth, their progressive role, the appraisal of them by Narodnik writers.
    3. The Growth of the Employment of Wage-Labour
      Approximate number of wage-workers. —Capitalist surplus-population. —The error of the Narodniks.
    4. The Formation of a Home Market for Labour-Power
      The main movements of wage-workers in connection with the size of wages. —The formation of a home market. —Mr. N--on’s "theory".
    5. The Significance of the Border Regions. Home or Foreign Market?
      Capitalism’s urge for expansion. —The example of the Caucasus. —Two aspects of the process of the formation of a market.
    6. The "Mission" of Capitalism
      The increase in the productivity of social labour. —The socialisation of labour. —The cause of the difference with the Narodniks.
    Appendices to “The Development of Capitalism in Russia”
    • Appendix I. Combined Table of Statistics on Small Peasant Industries of Moscow Gubernia (to Chapter V)
    • Appendix II. Table of Statistics on the Factory Industry of European Russia (to Chapter VII)
    • Appendix III. The Chief Centres of Factory Industry in European Russia (to Chapter VII)


    Uncritical Criticism609