Marx-Engels Collected Works/Volume 4

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Works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels[edit source]

1844-45

Prefacexv
The Holy Family, or Critique of Critical Criticism. Against Bruno Bauer and Company. (Marx & Engels)5
  • Foreword
7
9
12
17
19
19
20
20
23
55
56
57
61
69
72
75
76
78
78
78
87
90
92
92
94
99
99
106
118
124
134
136
144
144
148
148
151
154
144
162
165
166
166
168
176
176
188
190
191
195
195
196
196
197
199
201
210
  • Historical Epilogue
  • 211
    Continental Socialism (Engels)212
    Description of Recently Founded Communist Colonies Still in Existence (Engels)214
    Rapid Progress of Communism in Germany (Engels)229
    Speeches in Elberfeld (Engels)245
    • February 8, 1845
    245
    • February 15, 1845
    256
    Draft of an Article on Friedrich List's Book Das nationale System der politischen Oekonemie (Marx)265
    • I. General Characterisation of List
    265
    • II. The Theory of Productive Forces and the Theory of Exchange Values
    277
    • III. From Chapter Three. The Problem of Land Rent
    286
    • IV. Herr List and Ferrier
    290
    The Condition of the Working-Class in England. From Personal Observation and Authentic Sources (Engels)295
    • To the Working Classes of Great Britain
    297
    • Preface
    302
    307
      • The State of the Workers before the Industrial Revolution.-The Jenny.-Emergence of the Industrial and the Agricultural Proletariat.- The Throstle, the Mule, the Power-Loom, the Steam Engine.-The Victory of Machinery Work over Hand-Work.-The Development of Industrial Might.-The Cotton Industry.-The Hosiery Manufacture.-The Manufacture of Lace.-Dyeing, Bleaching, Printing.- The Manufacture of Wool.-The Linen Trade.-The Manufacture of silk.-The Production and Manufacture of Iron.-Coal Mining.- The Production of Pottery.-Agriculture.-Roadways, Canals, Railroads, Steamboats.-Summary.-The Emergence of the Proletariat as a Factor of National Importance.-The Middle Class' View of the Workers.
    324
    • Classification of the Proletariat.-Centralisation of Property.-The Levers of Modern Manufacture.-Centralisation of Population
    328
    • The Impression Produced by London.-The Social War and the System of General Plundering.-The Last of the Poors-General Description of the Slums.-In London: St. Giles and the Adjoining Quarters.-Whitechapel.-The Interior of the Workers' Dwellings. The Homeless in the Parks.-Night Refuge.-Dublin.-Edinburgh.-Liverpool.-Factory Towns: Nottingham, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield.-Lancashire: General Description.-Bolton.-Stockport.-Ashton-under-Lyne.-Stalybridge.-Detailed Description of Manchester: the General System of Its Building.-The Old Town.-The New Town.- The Method of Construction of Working-Men's Quarters.-Courts and Side Street.- Ancoats.-Little Ireland.-Hulme.-Salford.- Summary.-Lodging Houses.-Overcrowdedness of Population.- Cellar Dwellings.-The Clothing of the Workers.-Food.-Tainted Meat.-Adulteration of Provision.-False Weights, etc.-General Conclusion
    375
    • Competition among the Workers Determines the Minimum of Wages,Competition among the Property-Holding People Determines Their Maximum.-The Worker, the Slave of the Bourgeoisie, is Forced to Sell Himself by the Day, and by the Hour.-Surplus Population.- Commercial Crises.-A Reserve Army of Workers.-The Hard Lot of This Reserve Army during the Crisis of 1842
    389
    • The Causes and Figures.-Description by Thomas Carlyle.- Lack of Cleanliness, Crudeness and Drunkenness among the Irishmen.-The Influence of Irish Competition and of the Contacts with the Irish upon the English Workers
    393
    • Preliminary Remarks.-The Influence of the Above-Described Conditions on the Health of the Workers.-The Influence of Large Towns, Dwellings, Uncleanliness, etc.-The Facts.-Consumption.- Typhus, in Particular in London, Scotland and Ireland.-Digestive Troubles.-The Results of Drunkenness.-Quack Remedies.-"Godfrey's Cordial".- Mortality among Workers, Especially among Young Children.-Accusation of the Bourgeoisie of Social Murder.- Influence on the Mental and Moral Condition of the Workers.- Absence of the Necessary Conditions for Education.-Inadequacy of Evening and Sunday Schools.-Ignorance.-The Worker's Living Conditions Give Him a Sort of Practical Training.-Neglect of The Workers' Moral Training.-The Law as the Only Instructor in Morals. The Worker's Conditions of Life Tempt Him to Disregard Law and Morality.-The Influence of Poverty and Insecurity of Existence upon the Proletariat.-Forced Work.-The Centralisation of the Population.-Irish Immigration.-The Difference in Character between the Worker and the Bourgeois.-The Proletarian's Advantages over the Bourgeois.-The Unfavourable Sides of the Proletarian Character.-Drunkenness.-Sexual Irregularities.-Neglect of Family Duties.-Contempt for the Existing Social Order.-Crimes.- Description of the Social War.
    428
    • The Influence of Machinery.-Hand-Loom Weavers.-The Work of Men Being Superseded by Machinery.-Female Labour, the Distortion of the Family.-The Reversal of All Relations within the Family.- The Moral Consequences of the Mass Employment of Women in Factories.-Jus Primae Noctis.-The Work of Children.-The Apprentice System.-Subsequent Measures.-The Facts Related by the Factory Report.-Long Working-Day.-Night-Work. Cripples.- Other Deformities.-The Nature of Factory-Work.-Relaxation of the Whole Organism.-Special Diseases.-Testimony of the Commissioners.-Premature Old Age.-The Specific Influence of Factory Work upon the Female Physique.-Some Especially Injurious Branches.-Accidents.-The Bourgeoisie's Opinion of the Factory System.-Factory Laws and Agitation for the Ten Hours' Bill.- The Stupefying and Demoralising Nature of Factory-Work. Slavery.- Factory Regulations.-The Truck-System.-The Cottage System.- The Comparison of the Serf of 1145 with the Free Working-Man of 1845.
    479
    • Stocking Weavers.-The Lace Industry. Calico Printers.-Fustian Cutters.-Silk Weavers.-Metal-Wares.-Birmingham.- Staffordshire.-Sheffield.-Production of Machinery.-Potteries in the North of Staffordshire.-Manufacture of Class.- Handicraftsmen.- Dressmakers and Sewing-Women.
    501
    • Preliminary Remarks.-Crimes.-Revolts Against Machinery.- Associations, Strikes.-The Objects of the Unions and Strike.- Excesses Connected with Them.-The General Character of the Struggle Waged by the English Proletariat against the Bourgeoisie.- The Battle in Manchester in May 1845.-Respect for the Law is Alien to the Proletariat-Chartism.-The History of the Chartist Movement.-Insurrection of 1842.-The Decisive Separation of Proletarian Chartism from Bourgeois Radicalism.-The Social Nature of Chartism.-Socialism.-The Working-Men's Views
    550
    • Cornish Miners.-Alston Moor.-Coal and Iron Mines.-The Work of Grown-up Men, Women and Children.- Special Affections.-Work in Low Shafts.-Accidents, Explosions, etc.-Mental Education.- Morals. -Laws Relating to the Mining Industry.-Systematic Exploitation of the Coal-Miners.-The Beginning of the Workers' Movement.- The Union of Coal-Miners.-The Great Campaign of 1844 in the North of England.-Roberts and the Campaign against Justices of the Peace and the Truck-System.-The Results of the Struggle.
    545
    • Historical Survey.-Pauperism in the Country.-The Condition of the Wage-Workers.-Incendiarisms.-Indifference to the Corn Laws.- Religious State of the Agricultural Labourers.-Wales: Small Tenants.- "Rebecca" Disturbances.-Ireland: Subdivision of the Land.-Pauperisation of the Irish Nation.-Crimes.-Agitation for the Repeal of the Union with England.
    562
    • Demoralisation of the Engels Bourgeoisie.-Its Avarice.-Political Economy and Free Competition.-Pharisaic Charity.-The Hypocrisy of Political Economy and Politics in the Question of the Corn Laws.- Bourgeois Legislation and Justice.-The Bourgeoisie in Parliament.- A Bill Regulating the Relation of Master and Servant.-Malthus' Theory.-The Old Poor Law.-The New Poor Law.-Examples of the Brutal Treatment of the Poor in the Workhouses.-The Chances of the English Bourgeoisie
    • Postscript to The Condition of the Working-Class in England. An English Turnout (Engels)
    554
    Peuchet: On Suicide (Marx)597
    A Fragment of Fourier's on Trade (Engels)613
  • I.
  • 616
    • II. Falseness of the Economic Principles of Circulation
    620
    • III. Hierarchy of Bankruptcy
    624
    • IV. Ascending Wing of Bankrupts The Innocent.-The Honourable.-The Seductive
    626
    • V. Centre.-Grandiose Hues The Tacticians.-The Manoeuvrers.-The Agitators
    630
    • VI. Descending Wing.-Dirty Hues The Cunning Sneakers.-The Bunglers.-The False Brothers
    636
    • VII. Conclusion
    640
    The Late Butchery at Leipzig.-The German Working Men's Movement (Engels)645
    Victoria's Visit.-The "Royals" at Loggerheads.-Row Betwixt Vic and the German Bourgeoisie.-The Condemnation of the Paris Carpenters (Engels)649
    "Young Germany" in Switzerland. (Conspiracy against Church and State) (Engels)651
    Persecution and Expulsion of Communists (Engels)654
    History of the English Corn Laws (Engels)656

    From the Preparatory Materials[edit source]

    Hegel's Construction of the Phenomenology (Marx)665
    Draft Plan for a Work on the Modern State (Marx)666
    Plan of the "Library of the Best Foreign Socialist Writers" (Marx)667
    From the Notebook (Marx)668

    Appendices[edit source]

    To the Readers of and Contributors to the Gesellschaftsspiegel671
    Contract Between Marx and the Leske Publishers in Darmstadt on the Publication of Kritik der Politik und Nationalokonomie. February 1, 1845675
    Marx to Leopold I, King of Belgium, in Brussels. February 7, 1845676
    Marx's Undertaking Not to Publish Anything in Belgium on Current Politics. March 22, 1845677
    Marx to Chief Burgomaster Gortz in Trier. October 17, 1845678
    Marx to Chief Burgomaster Gortz in Trier. November 10, 1845679

    Illustrations[edit source]

    Title-page of the first edition of The Holy Family by Marx and Engels5
    Reproduction of K. Hubner's painting, Weavers Delivering Finished Cloth. 1844230
    Cover of the first edition of Engels' The Condition of the Working-Class in England299
    First page of Engels' address To the Working-Classes of Great Britain305
    A page from The Condition of the Working-Class in England (1845), with Edward Mead's poem, "The Steam King", translated by Engels475
    Map of Manchester515
    The covers of the journals to which Engels contributed: Deutsches Bürgerbuch, Westphälische Dampfboot, Gesellschaftsspiegal599-601