Marx-Engels Collected Works/Volume 35

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Karl Marx, Capital, Volume I[edit source]

Book I: The Process of Production of Capital[edit source]

Preface (MECW)xii
Preface to the First German Edition (Marx)7
Afterword to the Second German Edition (Marx)12
Preface to the French Edition (Marx)23
Afterword to the French Edition (Marx)24
Preface to the Third German Edition (Engels)27
Preface to the English Edition (Engels)30
Preface to the Fourth German Edition (Engels)37

Part I: Commodities and Money[edit source]

Chapter I Commodities45
  • Section 1. The Two Factors of a Commodity: Use Value and Value (the Substance Of Value and the Magnitude of Value)
  • Section 2. The Twofold Character of the Labour Embodied in Commodities
  • 51
  • Section 3. The Form of Value or Exchange Value
  • 57
      • A. Elementary or Accidental Form of Value
        • 1. The Two Poles of the Expression of Value: Relative Form and Equivalent Form
        • 2. The Relative Form of Value
        • (a.) The Nature and Import of This Form
        • (b.) Quantitative Determination of Relative Value
        • 3. The Equivalent Form of Value
        • 4. The Elementary Form Of Value Considered as a Whole
      • B. Total or Expanded Form of Value
        • 1. The Expanded Relative Form of Value
        • 2. The Particular Equivalent Form
        • 3. Defects of the Total or Expanded Form of Value
      • C. The General Form of Value
        • 1. The Altered Character of the Form of Value
        • 2. The Interdependent Development of the Relative Form of Value, and Of the Equivalent Form
        • 3. Transition from the General Form of Value to the Money Form
      • D. The Money Form
    • Section 4. The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof
    Chapter II. Exchange94
    Chapter III. Money, or the Circulation of Commodities103
  • Section 1. The Measure of Values
  • 103
  • Section 2. The Medium of Circulation
  • 113
      • a. The Metamorphosis of Commodities
      • b. The Currency of Money
      • c. Coin and Symbols of Value
    • Section 3. Money
      • a. Hoarding
      • b. Means of Payment
      • c. Universal Money

    Part II: The Transformation of Money into Capital[edit source]

    Chapter IV The General Formula for Capital157
    Chapter V Contradictions in the General Formula of Capital149
    Chapter VI The Buying and Selling of Labour Power177

    Part III: The Production of Absolute Surplus Value[edit source]

    Chapter VII The Labour Process and the Process of Producing Surplus Value187
    • Section 1. The Labour Process or the Production of Use Values
  • Section 2. The Production of Surplus Value
  • 196
    Chapter VIII Constant Capital and Variable Capital209
    Chapter IX The Rate of Surplus Value221
  • Section 1. The Degree of Exploitation of Labour Power
  • 221
  • Section 2. The Representation of the Components of the Value of the Product by Corresponding Proportional Parts of the Product Itself
  • 230
  • Section 3. Senior's "Last Hour"
  • 233
  • Section 4. Surplus Produce
  • 238
    Chapter X The Working Day239
  • Section 1. The Limits of the Working Day
  • 239
  • Section 2. The Greed for Surplus Labour. Manufacturer and Boyard
  • 243
  • Section 3. Branches of English Industry Without Legal Limits to Exploitation
  • 251
  • Section 4. Day and Night Work. The Relay System
  • 263
  • Section 5. The Struggle for a Normal Working Day. Compulsory Laws for the Extension of the Working Day from the Middle of the 14th to the End of the 17th Century
  • 270
  • Section 6. The Struggle for the Normal Working Day. Compulsory Limitation by Law of the Working Time. The English Factory Acts, 1833 to 1864
  • 283
  • Section 7. The Struggle for the Normal Working Day. Reaction of the English Factory Acts on Other Countries
  • 302
    Chapter XI Rate and Mass of Surplus Value307

    Part IV: Production of Relative Surplus Value[edit source]

    Chapter XII The Concept of Relative Surplus Value317
    Chapter XIII Co-operation326
    Chapter XIV Division of Labour and Manufacture341
    • Section 1. Two-fold Origin of Manufacture
  • Section 2. The Detail Labourer and his Implements
  • 344
  • Section 3. The Two Fundamental Forms of Manufacture: Heterogeneous Manufacture, Serial Manufacture
  • 347
  • Section 4. Division of Labour in Manufacture, and Division of Labour in Society
  • 356
  • Section 5. The Capitalistic Character of Manufacture
  • 364
    Chapter XV Machinery and Modern Industry374
  • Section 1. The Development of Machinery
  • 374
  • Section 2. The Value Transferred by Machinery to the Product
  • 389
  • Section 3. The Proximate Effects of Machinery on the Workman
  • 397
      • a. Appropriation of Supplementary Labour Power by Capital. The Employment of Women and Children
      • b. Prolongation of the Working Day
      • c. Intensification of Labour
    • Section 4. The Factory
  • Section 5. The Strife Between Workman and Machine
  • 430
  • Section 6. The Theory of Compensation as Regards the Workpeople Displaced by Machinery
  • 440
  • Section 7. Repulsion and Attraction Of Workpeople by the Factory System. Crises in the Cotton Trade
  • 450
  • Section 8. Revolution Effected in Manufacture, Handicrafts, and Domestic Industry by Modern Industry
  • 462
      • a. Overthrow of Co-operation Based on Handicraft and on the Division of Labour
      • b. Reaction of the Factory System on Manufacture and Domestic Industries
      • c. Modern Manufacture
      • d. Modern Domestic Industry
      • e. Passage of Modern Manufacture, and Domestic Industry into Modern Mechanical Industry. The Hastening of This Revolution by the Application Of the Factory Acts to Those Industries
    • Section 9. The Factory Acts Sanitary and Educational Clauses of the Same Their General Extension in England
  • Section l0. Modern Industry and Agriculture
  • 505

    Part V: The Production of Absolute and Relative Surplus Value[edit source]

    Chapter XVI Absolute and Relative Surplus Value509
    Chapter XVII Changes Of Magnitude in the Price of Labour Power and in Surplus Value519
    • I. Length of the Working Day and Intensity of Labour Constant Productiveness of Labour Variable
  • II. Working Day Constant. Productiveness of Labour Constant. Intensity of Labour Variable
  • 524
  • III. Productiveness and Intensity of Labour Constant. Length of the Working Day Variable
  • 526
  • IV. Simultaneous Variations in the Duration, Productiveness, and Intensity of Labour
  • 527
      • (1.) Diminishing Productiveness of Labour with a Simultaneous Lengthening of the Working Day
      • (2.) Increasing Intensity and Productiveness of Labour with Simultaneous Shortening of the Working Day
    Chapter XVIII Various Formulae for the Rate of Surplus Value531

    Part VI: Wages[edit source]

    Chapter XIX The Transformation of the Value (and Respectively the Price) of Labour Power into Wages535
    Chapter XX Time Wages542
    Chapter XXI Piece Wages550
    Chapter XXII National Differences of Wages558

    Part VII: The Accumulation of Capital[edit source]

    Chapter XXIII Simple Reproduction565
    Chapter XXIV Conversion of Surplus Value into Capital578
    • Section 1. Capitalist Production on a Progressively Increasing Scale. Transition of the Laws of Property that Characterise Production of Commodities into Laws of Capitalist Appropriation
  • Section 2. Erroneous Conception, by Political Economy, of Reproduction on a Progressively Increasing Scale
  • 584
  • Section 3. Separation of Surplus Value into Capital and Revenue. The Abstinence Theory
  • 587
  • Section 4. Circumstances that, Independently of the Proportional Division Of Surplus Value into Capital and Revenue Determine the Amount of Accumulation. Degree of Exploitation of Labour Power. Productivity of Labour. Growing Difference in Amount Between Capital Employed and Capital Consumed. Magnitude of Capital Advanced
  • 595
  • Section 5. The So-called Labour Fund
  • 604
    Chapter XXV The General Law of Capitalist Accumulation607
  • Section 1. The Increased Demand for Labour Power that Accompanies Accumulation, the Composition of Capital Remaining the Same
  • 607
  • Section 2. Relative Diminution of the Variable Part of Capital Simultaneously with the Progress of Accumulation and of the Concentration that Accompanies it
  • 616
  • Section 3. Progressive Production of a Relative Surplus Population or Industrial Reserve Army
  • 623
  • Section 4. Different Forms of the Relative Surplus Population. The General Law of Capitalistic Accumulation
  • 634
  • Section 5. Illustrations of the General Law of Capitalist Accumulation
  • 642
      • (a) England from 1846 - 1866
      • (b) The Badly Paid Strata of the British Industrial Class
      • (c) The Nomad Population
      • (d) Effect of Crises on the Best Paid Part of the Working Class
      • (e) The British Agricultural Proletariat
      • (f) Ireland

    Part VIII: The So-Called Primitive Accumulation[edit source]

    Chapter XXVI The Secret of Primitive Accumulation704
    Chapter XXVII Expropriation of the Agricultural Population from the Land707
    Chapter XXVIII Bloody Legislation Against the Expropriated, from the End of the 15th Century. Forcing down of Wages by Acts of Parliament723
    Chapter XIX Genesis of the Capitalist Farmer731
    Chapter XXX Reaction of the Agricultural Revolution on Industry. Creation of the Home Market for Industrial Capital733
    Chapter XXXI Genesis of the Industrial Capitalist738
    Chapter XXXII Historical Tendency of Capitalist Accumulation748
    Chapter XXXIII The Modern Theory of Colonisation751

    Illustrations[edit source]

    Title Page of the First German Edition of Volume I of Capital2
    Marx's letter to Lachatre of March 18, 1872, the facsimile of which is given in the French edition of Volume I of Capital25
    Title page of the first English edition of Volume I of Capital31

    Note from MIA :

    Two multipage sets of text were inadvertently omitted from the volume of the Karl Marx, Frederick Engels: Collected Works (MECW) that contains Volume I of Marx’s Capital. In 2009, the Errata providing the missing pages will be distributed to libraries possessing the MECW.

    The text of volume I of Capital that can be found online in the Marx/Engels Collected Works section of the Marxists Internet Archive under volume 35 of the Collected Works does not have these pages missing. Before volume 35 had been printed, this text had been copied from the three-volume edition of Capital published in 1965 by Progress Publishers (Moscow), reprints of which were subsequently copublished by them with International Publishers (NY) and Lawrence & Wishart (UK). The text for the missing pages in this errata was taken from that edition.

    Thanks to Erwin Marquit.