Preparatory Materials for The Role of Force in History

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1. 1848. Postulate of national states. Italy, Germany, Poland, Hungary.

2. Bonaparte’s enlightened policy of conquest: nationhood in exchange for compensation. Italy.

3. Against this, [Prussian] army reorganisation. Conflict. Bismarck. Policy not original.

4. Position in Germany. Unity: 1. through revolution, 2. through Austria, 3. through Prussia (Customs’ Union).

5. War [of] 1864 and 1866. Revolutionary means.

6. Bismarck’s best years—until 1870.

7. French War.[1] Empire. Annexation of Alsace-Lorraine. Russia the arbitrator.

8. Bismarck at the end—turns reactionary, feeble-minded. Kulturkampf[2] (civil marriage). Protective tariffs and agrarian alliance with bourgeois.—Colonial swindles. Slandering of Bismarck.— Anti-Socialist Law.[3]—Suppression of coalition.—Social reform.— Militarism because of annexation of Alsace.—The Junker [in Bismarck] comes to the fore for the lack of other ideas.

  1. This point also includes the notes written on the same sheet and crossed out by Engels presumably after he had used them in his work, "1 . Methods of warfare. Contribution, franc-tireurs, [Thefts of] clock, thrashing. Severity of Junkers' revenge from above. 2. Overthrow of the Empire. 3. Hats off to Paris! 4. Milliards and Alsace-Lorraine."— Ed.
  2. See Note 351.
  3. The reference is to court proceedings instituted by Bismarck in 1876-77 against a number of conservative journalists and politicians, who exposed his involvement in the stock-exchange machinations, on the charge of insulting him in the press. The incident revealed the mounting tension between Bismarck's government and the conservatives, who criticised his policies from a Right-wing standpoint. On the Anti-Socialist Law, see Note 174.